Understanding Natural Diamonds: Formation, Properties, and Value

Natural diamonds are a type of mineral that forms deep within the Earth’s mantle under conditions of extreme pressure and heat. They are made of a carbon-based lattice structure that makes them one of the hardest known substances, and they are renowned for their exceptional brilliance, clarity, and beauty.


Natural diamonds are a product of the earth’s dynamic processes and formed under specific conditions involving extremely high pressure and temperature. The formation of natural diamonds occurs deep within the Earth’s mantle, roughly 100 miles below the surface. In this environment, temperatures can soar to over 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, and pressure can reach an intense 725,000 pounds per square inch. It’s under these extreme conditions that carbon atoms begin to bond in a unique way, forming a crystalline structure that we recognize as diamond.

This process is not a quick one; it takes a long period of geological time to form a diamond. Often, the formation of these precious gemstones spans over billions of years, reflecting their rarity and the immense value we place on them.

Natural diamonds don’t stay buried deep within the Earth’s mantle. Volcanic eruptions provide a pathway for these diamonds to journey from the mantle to the Earth’s surface. These powerful eruptions create structures known as kimberlite and lamproite pipes, which act as conduits for the diamonds. As these eruptions cool and solidify, they form distinct rocks, either kimberlites or lamproites, which encase diamonds and other gemstones.


Diamonds possess properties that make them extraordinary and valuable in both industrial applications and as items of beauty. They are renowned for their hardness, holding the title as the hardest known natural substance. This hardness is a result of the strong covalent bonds between carbon atoms in a diamond’s crystal lattice, making diamonds incredibly scratch-resistant.

Aside from their structural strength, diamonds are also recognized for their optical properties. They have a high refractive index, which means they can significantly bend light, and a high level of dispersion, or the ability to split white light into its constituent colors. It’s these properties that give diamonds their magnificent sparkle and brilliance, especially when they are skillfully cut and polished into gemstones.

Value and Grading

The value of a diamond is assessed by the universally accepted grading system, known as the Four Cs: Carat, Cut, Color, and Clarity.

The Carat weight measures the size of the diamond, with larger diamonds generally being more valuable than smaller ones of equal quality. The Cut grade is an assessment of how skillfully the diamond has been cut from its raw form. A well-cut diamond will better display the stone’s inherent brilliance. The Color grade evaluates the diamond’s color, with the most valuable diamonds being completely colorless. Finally, the Clarity grade examines the presence of internal and external flaws, known as inclusions and blemishes. Diamonds with the fewest and smallest inclusions receive the highest clarity grades.

Mining and Ethical Concerns

Diamond mining is a global enterprise, with significant operations in countries such as Africa, Russia, Canada, and Australia. However, the industry has not been without controversy and ethical concerns. The issue of conflict diamonds, also known as “blood diamonds,” has been a significant point of criticism. These are diamonds mined in war zones and sold to finance armed conflict against governments.

To combat this, measures like the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme have been implemented. This scheme is designed to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the mainstream rough diamond market. However, despite such efforts, concerns about labor conditions, environmental impact, and the complete eradication of conflict diamonds persist.

The rise of lab-grown diamonds is partly a response to these ethical dilemmas. With advancements in technology, these diamonds, which are physically, chemically, and optically identical to natural diamonds, can be created in a controlled laboratory environment over a significantly shorter timeframe. This not only provides an alternative source for diamonds but also provides a potentially more ethical and sustainable way to meet the global demand for this precious gemstone.

8 Reasons Why Natural Diamonds Might Be A Better Choice

  1. Historical Significance: Natural diamonds have a rich and storied history that spans thousands of years. They were revered by ancient societies and used in religious icons, crowns, and other artifacts. Later, they were used as decorative items by European aristocracy and eventually became the symbols of love and commitment we know today. This historical significance adds a depth of meaning that is unique to natural diamonds. Lab-grown diamonds, while physically identical, don’t share this rich tapestry of historical and cultural significance.
  2. Unique Formation: Natural diamonds are formed deep within the Earth, under conditions of extreme heat and pressure. This process takes between one and three billion years, which means that every natural diamond is a testament to our planet’s incredible geologic history. The knowledge that each diamond is billions of years old adds a sense of awe and value that goes beyond mere aesthetics. This value, derived from their unique, prolonged formation process, can’t be replicated in a lab.
  3. Intrinsic Value: Natural diamonds, particularly high-quality ones, have traditionally held their value over time and can even appreciate in certain conditions. While the price of diamonds is subject to market fluctuations, natural diamonds have a long-standing and established market, making them more predictable in terms of value. While lab-grown diamonds are more affordable upfront, they don’t currently hold or appreciate in value to the same extent as their natural counterparts.
  4. Romantic Symbolism: The enduring quality of a diamond, formed over billions of years and virtually indestructible, has long been used as a symbol of eternal love and commitment. Many individuals find this symbolism particularly meaningful when the diamond is naturally formed, reflecting the longevity and strength of the bond between them and their loved one. This symbol of unbreakable and long-lasting love can’t be entirely replicated with lab-grown diamonds, which are created in a significantly shorter timeframe.
  5. Rarity: The supply of natural diamonds is ultimately finite and is becoming increasingly rare as reserves dwindle. This rarity provides a sense of exclusivity and uniqueness, knowing that each diamond is a natural wonder that took billions of years to form. Conversely, lab-grown diamonds can be produced en masse, which may lessen the perceived value and uniqueness for some individuals.
  6. Variety: Natural diamonds can contain trace elements and inclusions that create a variety of colors, from subtle yellows and browns to more rare and vibrant blues, greens, and even reds. These natural color variations result from specific conditions during the diamond’s formation process, creating a depth and richness of color that is difficult to replicate in a lab setting.
  7. Unique Imperfections: Natural diamonds often contain small imperfections, known as inclusions, which are the result of their formation process. These inclusions can be seen as unique “birthmarks” that make each natural diamond one of a kind. While some view inclusions as flaws, others view them as part of the diamond’s character, adding to its uniqueness and story.
  8. Environmental Concerns: Both natural and lab-grown diamonds have environmental impacts. While it’s true that diamond mining can result in land disturbance and other ecological issues, efforts are being made in the industry to minimize these impacts and mine more responsibly. Lab-grown diamonds, while avoiding the land disturbance, require a significant amount of energy to create, which also has environmental implications. Some consumers may prefer natural diamonds, particularly if they are sourced from environmentally responsible mines, as they consider the longevity and finite nature of these gems a more sustainable choice.